The Ultimate Hop Substitution Chart

by Dane Wilson | Last Updated: February 21, 2023

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Oh no, it’s happened. You started brewing a fresh batch of homemade beer and realized that you have ran out of your favorite hops. What are you going to do? So long as you have other hops on hand, you should have no issue getting the flavors you want. There are over 500 kinds of hops out in the world, so even if a beer recipe calls for a specific hop variety, you can substitute another. That is why we made this handy hop substitution chart to help you find the next best hop in the blink of an eye.

Table of Contents

hop substitution chart

Are Hops Interchangeable in Recipes?

Ever wonder if you could swap out one kind of hop for another without any poor results? Hops provide a variety of flavors and aromas, and so you may be concerned that substituting one kind of hops may adversely affect your brew. The good news is that hops are relatively forgiving when it comes to substituting them. However, you want to make sure that you swap in hops that are close to what the recipe is asking you to use.

For example, if you don’t have a kind of aromatic hop needed for the recipe, you should use an aromatic hop with a similar aroma or flavor profile. Don’t use bittering hops for aromas and vice versa.

Don’t forget to consider Noble Hops for your substitutions, since they have been used in beer recipes for hundreds of years!

Aromatic Hops

Aroma hops are used later during the boil (around 10-15 minutes remaining) or when dry hopping, as they have low alpha acids—less than 10 percent. Aromatic hops have a 1:1 alpha-beta acid ratio, meaning that they rarely add any bitterness to your brew.

These hops are chock full of oils that mimic the flavor and scent of fruits, which is why they are useful when you want to create specific tastes within a brew. For example, if you wanted a citrusy brew, you would use a hop high in myrcene.

Here is a fascinating review on hops and how they are used in beer brewing:

Aromatic Hops Substitution Chart

This chart has all the hops you can swap in to get the scents and flavors your homebrew recipes calls for.

Hop NameAroma & FlavorAlpha Acid ContentSubstitute Hops
AhtanumFloral, Cedar, Grapefruit4-6.3%Cascade, Amarillo
AmarilloOrange, Lemon, Peach, Apricot, Grapefruit, Melon8-11%Centennial, Ahtanum, Summer, Chinook, Cascade (US)
AmethystSpicy, Citrus2-6%Loral, Saaz
AramisSpicy, Citrus, Herbal7.9-8.3%Challenger, Ahtanum, Willamette
ArcherPeach, Apricot, Citrus, Floral4-6%Strisselsplat, Challenger, Willamette
AquilaAromatic6.7-8.9%Cluster, Galena
Atlas (Styrian Atlas)Floral, Lime, Pine9-11%Styrian Aurora, Apolon, Brewers Gold
BoadiceaOrchard Blossoms, Ripe Fruit, Floral7-10%Columbus, Chinook, Cascade, Green Bullet
Canadian RedvineGrapefruit Peel, Cherry5-6%Galena, Newport, Magnum
CekinMild6-8%Styrian Goldings, Styrian Aurora, Brewers Gold
CrystalGreen, Woody2.8-4.4%Mount Hood, Hallertau (GER), Ultra, Liberty
DeltaMelon, Citrus, Spicy5.5-7%Nelson Sauvin, Fuggle, Williamette, Cascade
East Kent GoldingsLavender, Thyme, Lemon, Orange, Grapefruit, Honey5-6%Whitbread Golding, Progress, Golding (UK)
Ekuanot (Equinox)Berry, Lime, Apple, Mandarin Orange, Green Pepper, Mango, Papaya, Melon14.5-15.5%El Dorado, Huell Melon
EllaSpicy, Star Anise, Grapefruit, Floral13.4-19.2%Citra, Cascade
EnigmaRaspberry, Redcurrant, Tropical Fruit, Pinot Gris16.7-19.4%Huell Melon, Nelson Sauvin
GalenaPineapple, Lime, Grapefruit, Pear, Blackcurrant12-14%Nugget, Columbus, Zeus
GargoyleCitrus, Mango7.5%Ivanhoe, Cluster
German Spalt SelectFloral, Berry, Citrus, Spicy2.5-5.5%Saaz
German TraditionNectar, Earthy, Grassy5-7%Hersbrucker, Liberty, Hallertau Mittelfruh
Goldings (UK)Honey, Earthy, Spicy4-7%East Kent Golding, Fuggle, Styrian Golding
Goldings (US)Sweet, Floral, Delicate4-6%East Kent Golding, Fuggle, Styrian Golding
Goldings (B.C.)Spicy, Earthy4-7%Williamette, Golding (US), Fuggle, East Kent Golding
Hallertau (GER)Spicy, Flowery3.5-5.5%Hallertauer Traditional, Hallertauer Mittelfruh, Crystal, Liberty, Mount Hood, Hallertau (NZ)
Hallertau (NZ)Lime, Citrus, Floral7-9%Hallertau Mittelfruh, Hallertau Tradition, Hallertau (GER), Mount Hood, Crystal, Liberty
Hallertau (US)Spicy, Floral3.5-5.5%Hallertau Tradition, Hallertau Mittelfruh, Mount Hood, Crystal, Liberty
Hallertau BlancGrapefruit, Pineapple, Grape, Lemongrass, Passionfruit9-12%Nelson Sauvin
Hallertau GoldSpicy7-10%East Kent Golding, Tettnanger, Hallertau Mittelfruh
Hallertau MittelfruhTea, Citrus, Grass3-5.5%Hallertau (US), Liberty
Hallertau TraditionOrange, Lavender, Tea, Orange4.6-7%Liberty, Hallertau Mittelfruh
Helga (Southern Hallertau)Pleasant5.4-7.3%Hallertau Mittelfruh, Mount Hood
HerbruckerOrange, Fruit, Tobacco2-5%Spalter Select, Mount Hood, Hallertau, Liberty, Strisselspalter, Hallertau Tradition
Huell MelonHoneydew, Melon, Vanilla, Orange, Tropical, Strawberry6.9-7.5%Ekuanot, Cascade
Idaho #7Peach, Pineaplle, Black Tea, Resin, Pine, Mango13-15%Citra, Mosaic
IvanhoePine, Citrus7.3-8%Galena, Northern Brewer, Cluster
JesterGrapefruit, Lychee, Tropical7-9%Challenger, Cascade
KazbekLemon, Spicy5-8%Premiant, Saaz
KohatuTropical Fruits6.8%Motueka, Citra
LibertyHerbal, Spicy, Lemon, Floral3-6%Mount Hood, Strisselspalter, Hallertau, Tradition
LoralCitrus, Lemon, Pepper, Floral, Fruit10-12%Tradif de Bourgogne, Tettnanger, Nugget, Strisselspalter
Lublin (Lubelski)Strong, Noble3-5%Sterling, Saaz
Mandarina BavariaGrapefruit, Tangerine, Lime8.5-10.5%Columbus, Nugget
Mathon WhiteEarthy, Honey, Spicy4.4-6.7%East Kent Golding, Bramling, Progress, Whitbread Golding
MedusaGuava, Melon, Apricot, Citrus3.5-5%Zappa
MeridianBerry, Citrus, Tropical5-6.5%Glacier, Centennial, Citra
Mount HoodPungent, Noble4-8%Hersbrucker, Strisselspalter, Crystal
Pacific CrestFloral, Grass, Herbal, Spicy, Earthy3.9%Saaz, Tettnanger, Fuggle
Pacific JadeBlack Pepper, Citrus, Fresh12-14%Pacific Gem, Galena
PacificaOrange Zest, Floral, Marmalade5-6%Perle, Hallertau Mittelfruh
PalisadeClean, Floral, Grass, Apricot5.5-9.5%Williamette
Precoce de BourgogneMild3.4%Tardif de Bourgogne
PremiantMild, Spicy, Pleasant8-12.5%Kazbek, Saaz
ProgressSweet, Grass, Mint, Honey, Blackcurrant6-7.5%East Kent Golding, Fuggle (UK)
RelaxHoneydew, Melon, Hibiscus0.25%Huell Melon
RiwakaCitrus, Grapefruit4.5-6.5%Saaz
Saaz (Czech)Mild, Herbal, Pleasant, Noble2.5-4.5%Kazbek, Sterling, Lubin, Saaz (US), Premiant
Saaz (US)Spicy, Herbal, Earthy3-4.5%Saaz (CZ)
SantiamSpicy, Floral, Black Pepper, Herbal5-8%Tettnager, Spalt
SaphirSweet, Citrus, Floral, SPicy2-4.5%Hallertau Mittelfruh
Savinjski GoldingNoble2.8-6%Saaz, Tettnanger
SladekPassionfruit, Grapefruit, Peach4.5-8%Saaz
Sonnet GoldingGrass, Oak, Honey, Earthy2.6-6%East Kent Golding, Crystal, Strisselspalt, Hersbrucker, Saaz
SpaltEarthy, Spicy, Noble2.5-5.7%Tettnanger, Santiam, Saaz, Hallertau, Liberty
Spalt SelectEarthy, Aromatic3-6.5%Saaz, Tettnanger, Hallertau Tradition, Hersbrucker, Spalt
StrisselspaltGrassy, Spicy, herbal, Floral, Grapefruit1.8-5.7%Crystal, Mount Hood, Hersbrucker
Styrian Goldings (NZ)Mild4.5-7.5%Fuggle (US)
SummerMelon, Peach, Apricot, Grass5.6-6.4%Palisade, Belma
SussexVanilla, Citrus, Grass, Mint, Earthy4.3-5.8%Progress, Fuggle, Whitbread Golding
SylvaHerbal, Noble, Floral5.6-7.3%Hallertau Mittelfruh, Helga, Saaz
TahomaGrapefruit, Cedar, Pine, Melon, Floral, Peppery, Lemon7.2-8.2%Lemon Drop, Mandarina Bavaria
Tardif de BourgogneMild7.2-8.3%Precoce de Bourgogne
TeamakerTea, Aromatic0.6-1.8%Crystal, Fuggle
TriskelHerbal, Citrus, Spicy, Floral8-9%Strisselspalt, Centennial, Chinook, Simcoe, Ahtanum
UltraFloral, Mild3-5%Tettnanger (GER), Saaz
VanguardWoody4.4-6%Mount Hood, Liberty
VikingHoppy, Pleasant8-10%Saxon
Wai-itiApricot, Spicy, Lime, Peach, Tropical, Fruity2.5-3.5%Kahatu
WillametteElderberry, Floral, Fresh, Incense4-6%Fuggle, Glacier, Styrian Golding, Tettnanger
Williamette (NZ)Spicy, Mild4-6%Fuggle, Glacier, Styrian Golding, Tettnanger
ZiatanMild, Noble5.2%Saaz, Hallertau

Bittering Hops

Looking to substitute bittering hops? Here is what you need to know: They have a high percentage of alpha acids. In other words, the longer you boil bittering hops, the greater the amount of isomerization, leading to more bitterness. You can see how bitter a beer is by checking the International Bitterness Units, or IBUs, on the label.

Bittering hops are used early in the boil and are used to limit the sweetness of the wort. These hops are also crucial for stabilization, thanks to the iso-alpha acids present.

Bittering Hop Substitution Chart

If you want to use various bittering hops interchangeably, check out the bittering hops substitution chart below:

Hop NameAroma & FlavorAlpha Acid ContentSubstitute Hops
AdmiralFresh, sap, black tea, orange, citrus13-16.2%Northdown, Chinook, Cascade (US), Target, Centennial, Challenger, Amarillo
ApolloGrapefruit, Crisp15-20%Columbus, Zeus, Nugget
BannerBitter8.4-13%Cluster, Galena, Aquila
Bitter GoldStone Fruit, Cut Grass, Watermelon, Pear15.4-18.8%Nugget, Galena
BravoVanilla, Orange14-17%Columbus, Zeus
Brewers Gold (US)Spicy, Blackcurrant8-13.1%Bullion, Columbus
Brewers Gold (UK)Spicy, Blackcurrant7-11.3%Cascade, Galena, Northdown, Northern Brewer (US), Bullion
Bullion (US)Blackcurrant, Zesty6.7-12.9%Northern Brewer, Chinook, Brewers Gold, Galena, Columbus
Bullion (UK)Spicy, Zesty5.3-9.5%Chinook, Brewers Gold, Galena, Columbus, Northern Brewer
ChelanMild12-14.5%Nugget, Galena
Hallertau MagnumCitrus, Clean11-16%Columbus, Nugget, Hallertau Taurus
Magnum (GER)Pepper, Citrus, Clean, Apple12-14%Columbus, Nugget, Hallertau Taurus
Magnum (US)Clean, Light, Citrus10-14%Magnum (GER), Horizon
MillenniumHerbal, Floral, Resinous, Pear14.5-16.5%Summit, Nugget, Columbus
NewportBalsamic, Wine13.5-17%Galena
Northern Brewer (GER)Grass, Pine, Mint7-10%Magnum, Chinook, Galena, Northern Brewer (US & UK), Perle
OuteniquaMildly Bitter12-13.5%Southern Star
Pacific SunrisePine12.5-14.5%Pacific Gem
PahtoFloral, Earthy, Herbal17-20%East Kent Goldings
PilotLemon, Marmalade, Spicy8-11.5%Galena
Pride of RingwoodFruity, Spicy7-11%Centennial, Cluster, Galena
Southern BrewerAromatic, Bitter5.6-12%Southern Promise
Southern StarSpicy, Earthy12-14%Outeniqua
SovereignGrassy, Floral, Mint, Pear, Herbal Tea4.5-6.5%Fuggle
SummitIncense, Anise, Orange, Pepper16-18%Columbus, Simcoe, Millennium
SunHerbal12-16%Galena, Zeus, Magnum
Super GalenaAromatic, Fruity13-16%Columbus, Zeus, Chinook, Nugget, Cluster, Brewers Gold, Eroica, Pride of Ringwood
Super PrideFruit, Resinous13.5-15%Pride of Ringwood
TillicumCitrus, Stone Fruit13.5-15.5%Chelan, Galena
WarriorResinous, Citrus, Pine, Mild14.5-18%Nugget
ZeusPungent, Licorice, Black Pepper, Curry13-17.5%Columbus

Dual Purpose Hops

Last but surely not least are the dual purpose hops. Because these hops have both kinds of alpha acids in high amounts, you can use them for bittering and aroma. You can also use dual purpose hops at the beginning or end of a boil or when dry hopping.

Recently, dual purpose hops like Simcoe, Cascade, and Citra are being incorporated into Pale Ales, IPAs, and DIPAs (and yes, these three hops can all be substituted for one another). Most are fruity and citrus-forward.

Dual Purpose Hop Substitution Chart

Check out the substitutes for these popular dual purpose hops:

Hop NameAroma & FlavorAlpha Acid ContentSubtitute Hops
African QueenLemongrass10-17%Cascade, Mosaic, Citra, Simcoe, Amarillo
ApolonMild, Clean10-12%Brewers Gold, Syrian Aurora, Syrian Goldings
ArianaCitrus, Wood, Berry9-13%Hallertau Blanc, Mandaria Bavaria
AzaccaTropical, Mango, Papaya, Pineapple, Lemon, Grapefruit14-16%Galaxy, Mosaic, Citra
BelmaTropical Fruit, Orange9.4-12.1%Huell Melon, Summer
BouclierGrass, Herbal, Spicy5.2-9%Chinook
Bramling CrossLoganberry, Vanilla, Blackcurrant5-7.8%Whitbread Golding
CalicrossFruity, Floral, Earthy5.8-7.9%Cluster
CalypsoApple, Pear, Citrus12-14%Huell Melon, Galena, Cascade
Cascade (US)Pine, Floral, Grapefruit4.5-8.9%Amarillo, Columbus, Anthanum, Centennial
CashmereLemon, Lime, Melon, Spicy7.7-9.1%Cascade
CentennialOrange Blossom, Earthy, Lemon, Floral9.5-11.5%Nugget, Zeus, Columbus, Chinook
ChallengerSweet, Fruity, Green Tea, Cedar6.5-9%Perle, USA
ChinookSpicy, Pine, Grapefruit12-14%Nugget, Buillon, Eroica, Galena
CitraMelon, Lime, Passionfruit, Gooseberry, Grapefruit10-15%Cascade, Simcoe, Centennial
ClusterSweet, Fruity, Earthy, Floral5.5-9%Eroica, Galena
ColumbiaFruity, Earthy6.8-11.5%Fuggle, Williamette
ColumbusDank, Citrus, Spicy, Earthy, Black Pepper14-16%Chinook, Millennium, Centennial, Nugget, Galena, Zeus
CometGrass, Grapefruit, Wild American9.4-12.4%Galena
DanaCitrus, Floral11-16%Celeia, Bobek
Denali (Exp 06277)Pine, Citrus, Pineapple13-15%Nugget, Zeus
Dr. RudiLemongrass, Pine, Resin10-12%Green Bullet
El DoradoApricot, Cherry, Citrus, Wood, Mint, Grass, Watermelon13-17%Ekuanot, Galena
EndeavorLoganberry, Grapefruit, Lime, Spicy, Blackcurrant8-10.5%Pilgrim, Brambling Cross
EpicBerry, Fruity3-5%Mandarina Bavaria, Fuggle
EroicaFruity7.1-14.9%Buillon, Brewers Gold, Galena
EurekaPeach, Pine, Citrus18-19%Columbus, Apollo
Falconer’s FlightLemon, Grapefruit11-12%Cascade, Columbus, Centennial, Falconer’s Flight 7C’s
Falconer’s Flight 7C’s BlendCitrus, Spicy, Earthy, Fruity9-10%Falconer’s Flight, Cascade, Columbus, Centennial
First GoldGeranium, Apricot, Marmalade, Tangerine, Magnolia5.6-9.3%East Kent Golding, Styrian Golding, Williamette
FlyerLicorice, Citrus, Spicy8.3-14.5%Goldings, Williamette
Fuggle (US)Grass, Mint, Wood, Mild4-5.5%Fuggle (UK), Styrian Golding, Tettnanger (GER), Williamette
Fuggle (UK)Mint, Grass, Floral, Green Tea3-5.6%Williamette, Styrian Golding, Tettnanger, Newport, Wakatu, Fuggle (US)
GalaxyPeach, Citrus, Passionfruit11-16%Citrus, Centennial, Amarillo
GlacierBlackberry, Wood, Plum3.3-9.7%Willamette, Fuggle, Tettnanger (GER)
Goldings (NZ)Floral, Earthy4-4.2%East Kent Goldings
Green BulletDried Fruit, Floral, Spicy11-15%Liberty, Dr. Rudi, Hallertau
Hallertau TaurusPepper, Blackcurrant, Zesty12.3-17.9%Magnum (US), Tradition, Citra
HeraldGrapefruit, Orange11.9-12.8%Pioneer
HerkulesMelon, Robust12-17%Chinook
HorizonSpicy, Floral, Citrus8.8-16.5%Hallertau Magnum
Idaho GemSweet, Fruity, Aromatic, Mojito, Stone Fruit, Mint, Powdered Sugar11-14%Azacca, El Dorado, Cashmere, Citra, Idaho 7, Cascade
JarryloBanana, Grass, Orange, Pear, Fruit, Spicy15-17%Calypso, Huell Melon, Taurus
JungaGrapefruit, Blackcurrant, Spicy10-13%Target, Nugget
Kirin IIAromatic8%Loral, Saaz
LegacyBlackcurrant, Blackberry, orange7.8-84%Galena, Northern Brewer, Cluster
Lemon DropLemon, Citrus5-7%Centennial, Cascade, Mandarina Bavaria
MarynkaHerbal, Earthy9-12%Tettnanger
MelbaSpicy, Citrus, Grapefruit, Passionfruit7-10%Galaxy
MerkurPineapple, Mint, Sugar12-16.2%Magnum (GER)
MosaicTangerine, Papaya, Blueberry, Bubblegum, Blossom, Rose11.5-13.5%Simcoe, Nugget, Citra
MotuekaTropical Fruit, Lemon, Lime6.5-8.5%Sterling, Liberty, Saaz
Moutere (Brooklyn)Fruit, Pine, Citrus15.5-18%Simcoe, Citrus
Mount RainierLicorice, Floral, Noble5-8.1%Hallertau, Fuggle
MultiheadSweet, Citrus, Floral, Fruity3.5-5.5%Medusa
Nelson SauvinGooseberry, Grape, Sauvignon Blanc, White Wine12-13%Pacifica, Pacifica Jade
Neo 1Lemon, Citrus7-9%Lemon Drop
NorthdownCedar, Berry, Floral, Fine7-10%Challenger
Northern Brewer (UK)Wood, Mint, Pine9.5%Northern Brewer (US & GER)
Northern Brewer (US)Pine, Grass, Mint8-10%Chinook, Northern Brewer (UK & GER)
NuggetGinger, Woody, Green9.5-14%Columbus, Magnum, Galena
OlympicSpicy, Citrus10.6-13.8%Nugget, Galena
OpalPepper, Anise, Sweet, Spicy, Citrus, Clean13-14%Syrian Goldings, East Kent Golding, Tettnanger
Pacific GemOak, Blackberry12-16%Pacific Jade, Galena
PekkoFloral, Melon, Mint, Cucumber, Lemon, Sage, Pear, Herbal, Pineapple13-16%El Dorado, Heull Melon, Saaz
Perle (UK)Pepper, Tea, Mint8-9%Northern Brewer (US, GER), Magnum
Perle (US)Floral, Spicy6-10%Northern Brewer (US, UK, GER), Magnum
PhoenixChocolate, Floral, Spicy8.5-13.5%Challenger, Northdown
PilgrimBerry, Lemon, Grapefruit, Pear9-13%Challenger, Target
PioneerCedar, Hebal, Lemon, Grapefruit8-10%East Kent Golding
PolarisMenthol, Mint, Pineapple18-23%Northern Brewer (GER)
RakauFig, Apricot, Cherry, Peach, Pine, Resinous5.8-10.9%Amarllo, Summit
RubinSpicy, Earthy10-14%Strisselspalt, Saaz
SimcoeBerry, Passionfruit, Earth, Citrus, Bubblegum, Pine12-14%Citra, Mosaic, Summit
SmaragdClove, Anise, Tobacco, Earthy4-6%Hallertau Gold
Sorachi AceOrange, Dill, Lemon11.5-16%Liberty, Lemon Drop
Southern CrossLime, Tropical, Lemon, Pine, Zesty12-14%Simcoe
Southern DawnLemongrass, Chamomile, Spicy10-12%Southern Brewer, Southern Promise
Sterling (US)Floral, Spicy, Herbal, Noble4.5-9%Mount Hood, Saaz
SticklebractCitrus, Pine13-14.2%Northern Brewer (GER)
Styrian AuroraSpicy7.2-12.6%Styrian Golding, Northern Brewer (US, UK, GER)
Styrian BobekPine, Noble3.5-9.3%Fuggle, Williamette, Styrian Golding
Styrian CeleiaFloral3-6%Bobek, Saaz, Styrian Golding
SybillaSpicy, Floral6-8%Bobek, Saaz, Fuggle, Lubelski
TaihekeLime, Grapefruit6-8%Goldings, Hallertau
TargetPepper, Citrus, Marmalade, Tangerine, Sage8-12.5%Fuggle, Williamette
TettnangerBlack Tea, Pepper, Spicy3-5.8%Hersbrucker, Saaz, Spalt
Tettnang (US)Spicy, Noble, Tea4-5%Fuggle, Santiam, Spalt
TomahawkBlack Pepper, Licorice, Curry Spice14-18%Columbus, Zeus
TopazGrass, Lychee, Resinous13.7-17.7%Apollo, Summit
Triple Pearl (Tripleperle)Resinous, Spicy, Pepper, Melon, Orange9-11%Huell Melon, Mandarina Bavaria
Vic SecretPine, Earth, Pineapple, Passionfruit14-17%Galaxy
VojvodinaNoble6.1-10.5%Northern Brewer, Goldings
WaimeaPine, Herbal, Citrus16-19%Pacific Jade, Columbus, Pacific Gem
WakatuFloral, Lemon, Lime, Zesty6.5-8.5%Hallertau Mittelfruh
Whitebread GoldingFloral, Fresh, Earth, Sweet, Fruity5-7.5%East Kent Golding, Progress
Wye ChallengerGreen Tea, Cedar, Spicy5-9%Perle, Northern Brewer, Admiral
Yakima GoldLemon Zest, Grapefruit8.8-10.5%Chinook, Cluster
ZythosTropical Fruit, Citrus10-12.5%Simcoe, Amarillo, Citra

Time to Get Hoppy

There you have it—three hop substitution charts! Hopefully, these charts will help you figure out the best way to substitute certain hops or maybe give you a reason to try new combinations. There are hundreds of hop varieties out there, so if one is unavailable, you can certainly find something nearly identical. Did we miss any hops that you use regularly? Let us know in the comment section.

Did you know you can also grow your own hops at home? Check out our article on how to grow hops. After that, you will need to know how to harvest them, too.

Frequently Asked Questions

What hop can I substitute for Liberty hops?

The three best hop varieties to substitute in for Liberty hops are Hallertau, Mount Hood, and Crystal hops.

What hop can I use instead of Pacific Gem?

An adequate Pacific Gem hop substitute is either Magnum, Galena, or Cluster hop varieties.

What hop can be substituted for Citra?

Simcoe, Cascade, Centennial, and Mosaic hops are all fairly decent substitutes for the popular Citra hop.

Which American hop can I substitute in for Saaz hops?

The best option for those trying to make a Czech pilsner (which needs those Saaz hops) are Sterling hops, which are grown on US soil.